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1513 Scots lose battle of Flodden against English. James IV slain.
1542 Scots defeated by English at the Battle of Solway Moss. Birth of Mary. Death of James V.
1543 Peace treaty between Scots and English: Mary to marry Edward, Henry VIII’s son. Mary crowned at Stirling, but Scots renege on betrothal.
1544-5 Rough Wooing: south-eastern Scotland ravaged by English.
1546 Cardinal Beaton murdered. St Andrews castle besieged.
1547 Scots crushed at the Battle of Pinkie by English. English invade south-east Scotland.
1548 Mary sent to France. Marriage contract between Mary and Dauphin, François, agreed. Scotland ruled by the Earl of Arran and Mary of Guise.
1550 English pushed out of Scotland with French help.
1557 First Bond signed by Protestant lords.
1558 Mary and François married. Start of religious unrest in Scotland.
1559 François becomes King of France. Mary of Guise Regent.
1560 Death of Mary of Guise. Peace agreed between Scots, English and French. François dies.
1561 Mary returns to Scotland.
1562 Mary’s forces defeat the Earl of Huntly’s troops at the Battle of Corrichie.
1563 French poet Châtelard forces his way into Mary’s bedchamber, and is executed.
1565 Mary and Darnley meet and, despite opposition by some nobles, marry at Holyrood. Chaseabout Raid: those opposed to Darnley rebel, but are hounded out of
Scotland. Mary supported by Bothwell.
1566 Rizzio, Mary’s favourite, murdered. Darnley involved in plot. James VI born at Edinburgh Castle. Mary visits injured Bothwell at Hermitage Castle. James VI
baptized at Stirling. Mary and Darnley attempt reconciliation.
1567 Darnley murdered at Kirk o’ Field, Edinburgh, and the house blown up. Suspicion falls on Mary, but Bothwell accused, although officially acquitted. Bothwell
kidnaps Mary in April, and they marry in May. Confederate Lords march to Borthwick Castle, where Mary and Bothwell are staying. They escape but Mary’s forces are defeated at Carberry Hill in June.
Mary imprisoned in Lochleven castle, where she agrees to abdicate. Bothwell escapes to the continent, but is imprisoned at Dragsholm in Denmark. James VI crowned.
1568 Mary escapes from Lochleven and flees to the west. Hamiltons and others raise army for her, but her forces are crushed at the Battle of Langside. Mary flees to
England and asks for Elizabeth’s help. Elizabeth imprisons Mary, and Mary spends the next 19 years in captivity in England.
1570 Regent Moray murdered.
1571 Regent Lennox shot and killed at Stirling. Ridolfi Plot: Mary plots against Elizabeth with Duke of Norfolk, who is executed.
1572 Regent Mar dies.
1573 End of civil war in Scotland. Mary’s party crushed.
1578 Death of Bothwell at Dragsholm.
1581 Morton, Regent from 1572-8, is executed.
1585 James VI begins to assert control of Scotland.
1586 Babington Plot: to assassinate Elizabeth and put Mary on throne. Those involved in plot tried and executed. Mary moved to Fotheringhay Castle to stand trial for
her part in plot, and is found guilty.
1587 Mary executed.
1603 Union of Crowns of Scots and England: James ascends to the English throne.
© Joyce Miller & Martin Coventry 2018